Report / Factsheet

Gender and Institutional Aspects of Climate-Smart Agricultural Practices: Evidence from Kenya


This paper analyses gender differences in awareness and adoption of climate-smart agricultural (CSA) practices. It examines what factors are associated with the likelihood of adoption of a wide range of CSA practices for 376 women and 375 men in two different areas of Kenya. This information is aimed at improving the targeting and design of interventions that are trying to achieve greater and more equitable agricultural development in East Africa and elsewhere. Our results suggest there is still much work to be done in increasing awareness of improved agricultural practices that enhance livelihoods and resilience to change, including a changing climate. Simply put, increasing awareness is necessary to increase adoption. Contact with extension agents, agri-service providers, farmers’ organizations and other conventional sources of agricultural and climate-related information are not yet significantly increasing awareness of CSA practices. In addition, providing information to one spouse (usually the husband) does not mean that the other spouse also learns about options and opportunities that meet their needs. These needs can be quite different for spouses, and for women, are usually integrally related to whether the household is food/nutritionally secure or not. Importantly, while women are less aware of CSA practices than are men, if they know about the practice, women are no less likely to adopt most practices. Moreover, women’s access to credit is positively associated with the adoption of CSA practices, although the household’s access to credit does not influence the uptake of CSA practices, and thus is likely being used for non-farm purposes.