Climate change affects women and men differently. However, there are few location-specific studies that can support interventions or policy development that can tackle this issue. To help build that body of knowledge, this article looks at gender-differentiated vulnerability among smallholder farmers in one sub-Saharan African country: Tanzania. Data were collected through household questionnaires, key informant interviews, and focus group discussions in Same District, northern Tanzania. Results revealed notable inequalities distributed across genders. Women bear the biggest burden from climate change impacts. For example, women shoulder 63% of productive tasks, such as ploughing and crop sowing, compared to 28% by men. On the other hand, resource ownership and expenditure are male dominated. The results highlight the need for governments and NGOs to address gender disparities in policies designed to strengthen the capacity of households to cope with vulnerability to climate change impacts.