This publication presents the scientific background of the SHARP tool. The Self‑evaluation and Holistic Assessment of climate Resilience of farmers and Pastoralists (SHARP) tool was developed over two years with the participation of over 150 academics, practitioners and civil society. SHARP was also field tested in Angola, Burkina Faso, Mali, Senegal and Uganda with farmers and pastoralists. It has been recognized that there is a need to both provide a rigorous assessment of the resilience of fa rmers and pastoralists, while also incorporating the views and needs of those people. SHARP assesses resilience through a participatory survey to both measure resilience and to engender discussions on how to increase farmers’ and pastoralists’ resilience.