Financial inclusion is an international programme to expand access to finance to all. In this sense, it refers to an idea–the goal of everyone being financially included; and a set of practices toward achieving it–making included; involving different actors, methods, technologies and sets of power relations. The key activity so far has been microfinance, which is also the best-documented and most researched part, and therefore at the centre of this chapter. Below, we offer an empirically informed discussion of financial inclusion, building on long-standing research results and debates about microfinance. We also aim to advance the reader’s critical engagement by questioning whether access to financial services really constitutes a universal human need, and probing for better evidence on whether financial inclusion in practice brings more benefits than harms.