Despite the key roles that rural women play in food systems, in agrobiodiversity conservation, natural resource management, food production, preparation and marketing, rural women are particularly affected by the impacts of climate change due to limited access and control over resources fundamental to adaptation and limited participation in decision-making processes. Similarly, they lack equal access to productive resources needed for agricultural livelihoods and are often the last to eat when food is scarce. Decision-making and leadership in climate action and governance are also male dominated and the decisions less likely to respond to women’s needs and wants. It is therefore urgent to ensure that policy and programmatic response for building back better and strengthening the resilience of food systems and communities takes into account the interests and constraints of women and men from diverse social, cultural, ethnic and religious backgrounds. For this to happen, it is important to strengthen women’s leadership and participation at all levels of climate action and governance.